ULTRASOUND

Ultrasounds scanning gives a clear picture of soft tissues that do not show up well on x-ray images.

Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography, involves exposing part of the body to high-frequency sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. Ultrasound exams do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays). Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body’s internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels in the body.

Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Non-contact sensor

An ultrasonic level or sensing system requires no contact with the target. For many processes in the medical, pharmaceutical, military and general industries this is an advantage over inline sensors that may contaminate the liquids inside a vessel or tube or that may be clogged by the product.

Both continuous wave and pulsed systems are used. The principle behind a pulsed-ultrasonic technology is that the transmit signal consists of short bursts of ultrasonic energy. After each burst, the electronics looks for a return signal within a small window of time corresponding to the time it takes for the energy to pass through the vessel. Only a signal received during this window will qualify for additional signal processing.

A popular consumer application of ultrasonic ranging was the Polaroid SX-70 camera which included a light-weight transducer system to focus the camera automatically. Polaroid later licensed this ultrasound technology and it became the basis of a variety of ultrasonic products.

Motion sensors and flow measurement

A common ultrasound application is an automatic door opener, where an ultrasonic sensor detects a person’s approach and opens the door. Ultrasonic sensors are also used to detect intruders; the ultrasound can cover a wide area from a single point. The flow in pipes or open channels can be measured by ultrasonic flowmeters, which measure the average velocity of flowing liquid. In rheology, an acoustic rheometer relies on the principle of ultrasound. In fluid mechanics, fluid flow can be measured using an ultrasonic flow meter.